Learning Facial Action Units From Web Images


We present a scalable weakly supervised clustering approach to learn facial action units (AUs) from large, freely available web images. Unlike most existing methods (eg, CNNs) that rely on fully annotated data, our method exploits web images with inaccurate annotations. We develop a weakly-supervised spectral algorithm that learns an embedding space to couple image appearance and semantics. The algorithm has efficient gradient update, and scales up to large quantities of images with a stochastic extension. With the learned embedding space, we adopt rank-order clustering to identify groups of visually and semantically similar images, and re-annotate these groups for training AU classifiers.

In IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)